A hundred years ago a technological revolution took place and a horse with a cart was replaced with a car. Indeed, there was no revolution but only a half of it, because the horse was taken away and the cart was left behind. A car is a cart for citizens, and I think that driving a car in modern world is as disgraceful as using a common cart. People who consider themselves to be elite, patricians, should ride a horse, but the technological revolution took it away and left only the cart, it took the best and left the worst. I think that ëthe horseí now is something like a segway or a bicycle, everything, that enables us to move with dignity and not to get stuck in traffic jams, as yokels did at the entrance to the city, when the guards could inspect everyone of them. The same thing happens today, when Muscovites and people from other cities get into traffic jams. Iím convinced that itís high time to put an end to it. Iíd suggest that our government should stop making vague plans and get down to business. Why cannot the mayor have his personal teleport, or a helicopter, or at least his own segway to show, that he is taking his promises to free the citizens from holdups seriously. Look at this State Standard and remember it. The 25206-85 State Standard regulates the number of passengers in trains in metro. According to it, one square meter can be occupied by 10 people. On the picture we can see 10 journalists from the ëKomsomolskaya Pravdaí newspaper, who marked one square meter on the floor and tried to stand like this. In one minute and a half they felt really uncomfortable. And the metro is the only alternative to cars we have today. In other words, either we get stuck in traffic jams, or we get squeezed in metro. I think it is wrong. Weíve seen the picture of Moscow traffic jams. Whatever perspective you choose it looks the same as hell. Up to 3,000 kilometers of traffic jams are formed daily in Moscow. 3,000 kilometers! How far is Norilsk from here? Yes, if to put them in one line, we could build a traffic jam from here to Norilsk today and from Norilsk to Moscow tomorrow. It is awful and it shouldnít be like this, because the technologies, the knowledge and economic resources we have nowadays allow us to get rid of the problem in one or two years. Our colleague from South Africa said that the city could be changed within three years. I wasnít that ambitious, thatís why I called my talk ëMoscow 2015: the City without Traffic Jamsí, but I guess, if some efforts are made, three years would be enough. So, this is what should be done: First of all we should understand why cars are so big, dreadful and ugly. When the technologies were developed a hundred years ago the engines were big, they needed large platforms with four wheels. And if the first car developer had placed this engine on eight-wheeled platform, we would have still driven eight-wheeled car by tradition. I think that two wheels are more than enough. This year in America Iíve tried a one-wheeled vehicle ñ I wonít show you the photograph, but believe me, one wheel is possible and soon we may be able to manage without wheels at all. This is a sectional view of a segway. Over there you can see a small thing, which looks like a tiny lemonade can. This is an engine. The other engine is on the other side. Two small engines are everything one needs to make human transportation comfortable and psychologically pleasant in normal conditions. And for that it doesnít require to place a huge engine in a huge car. Now letís have a look at Moscow and see how large it is. It has a bigger diameter of 40 kilometers and 30 kilometers from the west to the east. It means, that one can cross the city at a speed of 40 km/h within an hour, at 20 km/h within two hours, and from the west to the east within an hour and a half at 20 km/h. It would take half an hour to get to the center from a dormitory area at a segway maximum speed of 20 km/h. Imagine, that if people who live in Beskudnikovo, Vykhino and other districts of Moscow and need to get to the center could go at a speed of 20 km/h in a straight line, it would take them half an hour to reach the Garden Ring Road. Just think of that. Iím sure, most of you spend more than half an hour in transport. Some people spend an hour or an hour and a half. Iím not talking about myself now. I live at Novokuznetskaya and my office is at two minutesí walk from my house and the metro station at one minute walk, and this is the city center. But other people who live far from the center and have to get there every day ñ they suffer. When I had to go from Petrovsko-Razumovskaya to Yugo-Zapadnaya metro station to lecture, after the second time I realized, that it was inhuman. Again, do not forget about 10 people per square meter. How to get from a dormitory area to the center? Very easy! The paths like this are to be built, where people can ride bicycles, segways or roller-skate ñ whatever they like. The roads in Moscow are very expensive. The press all over the world has already stopped making fun of the cost of Moscow roads. Now they make fun of the roads in Sochi and in Skolkovo, but as for the roads in Moscow, the topic is trite. If we take the smallest part of these roads and, instead of burying the money and paving a road which can sustain the weight of a gigantic truck, even ‡ huge flow of them, build such pedestrian, bicycle and segway paths, then we will be able to cover the whole city with an ideal transport system, which would allow us to move everywhere around the city and fulfil the main function of our city ñ the communicative function. We wonít be sitting in the car listening to the radio, we will be able to communicate with each other, to move freely everywhere we want. If we want to turn round, we can drive off like this, if we want to stop, we can stop and leave the segway and have a cup of coffee etc. Now the financial aspect. The price of 1,200 meters of a common Moscow road is equal to 1,000 kilometers of a pedestrian, bicycle and segway path, which has a width of tree meters. The difference is obvious. Iím not lying. You can check it on Yandex and find out how much a pavement costs. Paving tile ñ 500 roubles for square meter, including all preparations and work, asphalt ñ 600 roubles for square meter. Simple arithmetic shows us the advantages of the second approach. Besides, there are many companies in Moscow, which would be willing to pay for the paths: McDonaldís, coffee houses and malls. They would be happy to build such paths for people to stop there and have a cup of coffee, or eat a hamburger on their way to work. Anyway, the paths can be built without any expenses from the municipal budget. And now imagine, how great it is, when you go out and instead of spending a distressful hour in traffic jams or in metro, you spend it in the open air with your friends meeting new people and having a cup of coffee before work. Now let us see, whether there will be any holdups if we start riding segways. Someone has said today: ìIf we have helicopters, there will be traffic jams in the airî. On the left picture we can see 40 people get into cars and how much room they take. On the picture in the middle we can see them get on a bus and how much room it takes. On the right picture we can see them riding bicycles ñ segways occupy the same space ñ and it becomes obvious, that the roads in Moscow can be practically clear. And here there is plenty of room for fantasy: one can lay out lawns and our city will be the greenest the world has ever seen. One can make pedestrian precincts, exhibition areas, schools in the open air, build malls ñ everything is possible, and we wonít have the situation shown on the left picture. This year I tried for the first time to drive a car as other people do. I tried it in the USA and it was a delightful pastime, because that country is designed for roads. One third of the territory of Los Angeles is occupied by roads, parking lots and flyovers. Unfortunately this cannot be said about Moscow. If we lived in one-storey America, we would defend cars, but we live in a megalopolis. In megalopolis a car is that wicked Otto, who wonít leave the party even if it has been over. The traffic capacity of the path ñ Iíve calculated ñis approximately 20,000 people per hour. You can see, that segways can run close to each other, you can hold hands with your girlfriend, or mother, or granny. Any collision is not catastrophic. The traffic capacity of the Moscow Ring Road is 9,000 cars per hour in both directions, which means 4,500 cars in each. Awful, isnít it? I wouldnít recommend segways for long distances. There are buses, trams, metro – many means of transport, which are able to take you at a distance of 80 kilometers at a speed of 80km/h, and then you can get off with your segway, or bicycle, or roller-skates and go wherever you want. And of course the flights will still be available. According to the Transport Problem-Solving Strategy, by 2020 the government will have invested 6.7 trillion roubles in this catastrophe. How do you think, could this money find a better application? I guess there must be a lot of variants. But if we speak about segways, for this money they can build 1.8 million kilometers of segway paths, which is twice more than the amount of roads in Russia today. Plus they can buy 22 million segways at today prices and without discounts, which is 3 million segways more than the number of citizens in Moscow and the Moscow region. It means that if we decided to abandon cars and try something new, every one including elderly people and babies would have a segway and 3 million would be in reserve, not considering the fact, that they might be produced at AZLK or somewhere else. The average speed of transport in Moscow. The Moscow metro ñ 25-30km/h. According to Sergey Ivanov, cars in Moscow do 22-27 km/h. In comparison with them, the trams stand still. Segways have their own speed limit of 20 km/h. If I drive straight ahead I will reach 20 km/h, so we can see that in terms of speed it does not yield to a car, and itís not difficult to learn to drive it. While Iím speaking here half of you may have already mastered it. I mean if you used my segway in turn. Children can use segways. Elderly people can use them too. An acquaintance of mine, a 60-year-old blind philosopher, used a segway. When heís told to turn to the right and so he turns. Physically disabled people also use segways easily. Somebody has asked about the weather. Segways can be used in any time of the year: in spring, in summer, in autumn, in winter. I drove in winter and it was all right. One should be a little careful with ice and snow ñ but agree, in winter you walk carefully too. But the main thing is that some radical decisions are possible to make. The singer Oleg Gazmanov sang about Moscow and its golden domes. One should build different domes. There are some examples of building of huge domes in Moscow, but they are fundamental constructions. But now there are light domes made of composite materials that can be easily stretched over a street within two hours and create a microclimate there. The greenhouse effect, which is usually regarded as something bad, will serve to warm the street in winter, and instead of snow there will be a temperature of 17-20 degrees above zero, and people will be able to drive segways, to ride bicycles, to roller-skate and to walk. A pedestrian area in the center would greatly improve the quality of life in the city. Imagine, that within the Garden Ring Road we would be able to drive segways, to ride bicycles, to roller-skate and to walk instead of standing in traffic jams. There will appear a lot of free room and one can create cultural and educational places there. The questions whether Sergey Sobyanin will be called ëSegwayí Sobyanin and whether he will be able to save Moscow from traffic jams remain unanswered. While there is no such plan, Iíd like to notice that that if there appear such paths people will switch from cars to something else. We donít need to make them choose, but if one in ten picks up a segway or a bicycle instead of a car, roads will become less loaded, traffic jams will become fewer and everybody will feel much better. As for the cost, a segway will cost you 33 roubles a day, and if a fuel card credit, which is given to mini-car owners, is added, it will cost 20 roubles. One ticket in public transport costs more. And the delight of the freedom of movement is priceless. Iím sure, everyone will agree, that now I feel much happier, than I would feel, if I were in a metro carriage holding a handrail like this and sharing my square meter with nine more people. Thank you.