History of nuclear power

By | February 16, 2020


We begin in 1896. In Paris, physicist Henri Becquerel accidentally
discovers during an experiment that uranium leaves a trace — or darkens — a photographic plate without any other light source. He concludes that uranium naturally emits
a ray he calls “uranique” in French. In the following years, physicists Pierre
and Marie Curie discover other elements that also naturally emit radiation. They call the phenomenon radioactivity. Later, Ernest Rutherford, a British physicist
born in New Zealand, suggests that radioactivity is radiation that accompanies the disintegration of atoms, which were previously considered to be indestructible. Other findings are then used to better understand
the structure of the atom, with electrons revolving around a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons. In 1938, two German chemists, Hahn and Strassmann
discover nuclear fission. Bombarding an atom of uranium with a neutron,
it is divided into two, releasing energy. The following year in Paris, Frédéric Joliot-Curie
discovers that during the nuclear fission of uranium, three neutrons are ejected which
in turn could cause further fission of atoms. He discovers the ability to initiate a chain
reaction and thus produce a large amount of energy. In Europe, World War II breaks out. While Germany continues to conduct research
on uranium, Albert Einstein is convinced by Hungarian physicists to sign a letter addressed to Roosevelt, the President of the United States informing him of recent nuclear discoveries and the possibility of creating a very powerful bomb using uranium. The United States benefits from the influx
of European scientists fleeing war and invests in research. At the University of California, Glenn Seaborg
discovers that irradiated uranium produces a tiny amount of plutonium, a new metal that is radioactive and fissile, i.e. it can trigger a chain reaction. In Chicago, Enrico Fermi creates the first
atomic pile and – for the first time – manages to control the first chain reaction of the
fission of uranium atoms. Research is accelerated and substantial resources
are invested. The United States secretly launches the Manhattan Project in collaboration with Canada and the United Kingdom. Top scientists gather in about 30 secret locations, with the best laboratories at the time made available to them. Their goal is to create the atomic bomb. The goal is to create a bomb from uranium
and another from plutonium. In nature, uranium is composed of more than
99% of Uranium 238, i.e. with a nucleus of 92 protons and 146 neutrons, and 0.7% of Uranium
235, with three neutrons less. Only the latter is fissile and therefore useful
in the project. The challenge is isolating and concentrating
it to obtain so-called enriched uranium. The United States manages to produce 64 tons
of highly enriched uranium to be used in the manufacture of the first bomb. By propelling a highly enriched uranium block
onto another, the material becomes supercritical. Fission begins and in a split second, a chain reaction ensues, releasing tremendous amounts of energy. For a plutonium bomb, a maximum of uranium piles are created in order to collect the plutonium produced. A few pounds are concentrated in the center
of the bomb. By simultaneously causing explosions all around, the material is compressed, becomes supercritical and explodes. On 16 July 1945, the first successful nuclear
test takes place in the desert of New Mexico. By this point, Germany had already surrendered. Only the Empire of Japan is still at war against
the United States. After Japan refuses to surrender unconditionally, the United States drops two atomic bombs on the country a uranium bomb on Hiroshima
and a plutonium one on Nagasaki. The two bombs cause about 200,000 civilian
casualties. Days later, Japan surrenders. With the United States demonstrating its power
to the world, the USSR accelerates its own nuclear program to try and catch up. The USSR conducts its first nuclear test. During the Cold War, both powers engage in a frantic arms race. Large sums are spent to gain technological superiority and possess the world’s largest nuclear arsenal with the ostensible aim of
deterring the enemy from attacking. While the United Kingdom tests its first atomic
bomb, the United States tests its first thermonuclear bomb, also known as the hydrogen or H-bomb. This is a fusion bomb, i.e. it reproduces the reaction occurring in stars by fusing two light atoms, deuterium and tritium, under high pressure and a temperature of several million degrees Celsius. To achieve these conditions, it is decided
to use the atomic bomb as a trigger. The explosion of the plutonium bomb creates
the right conditions to trigger the fusion of atoms. The explosion that follows is far more powerful
than nuclear fission. The Soviets, in turn, develop the H-bomb. In parallel, research is made to develop nuclear
power. The first nuclear power plants appear. The majority of future reactors would be with
pressurized water. In the core of the reactor is a vessel in
which low-enriched uranium is placed and used as fuel. Chain reactions are controlled to last about
3 years. The heat emitted increases the temperature
of pressurized water in the primary circuit. This circuit is brought into contact with the secondary circuit in which water heats to transform into steam. This is used to rotate the turbine which is
linked to a generator that produces electricity. A cooling circuit pumps water from a river
or sea to cool the vapor in the secondary circuit. Sometimes cooling towers are built to cool
the water in the last circuit. To encourage research in nuclear power, the
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is created under the aegis of the United Nations. The organization is responsible for ensuring
the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy. In addition, nuclear would also be used in
medicine, notably in medical imaging and the treatment of certain cancers. While France tests its first atomic bomb, the arms race between the USSR and the United States takes a turn for the worse. The two powers have already developed intercontinental missiles and nuclear submarines. The USSR conducts the most powerful test of the Tsar Bomba, with a capacity of 50 to 57 megatons of TNT. The following year, the US tests a hydrogen
bomb at an altitude of 400 km. The explosion creates an artificial aurora
visible even from New Zealand; while the emitted radiation damages at least 8 satellites. The same year, while the United States threatens
Soviet territories with nuclear missiles installed in Turkey and Italy, the USSR places
in Cuba nuclear missiles pointed at the United States. Just as tensions build to a climax, negotiations
take place between the two powers after which both parties withdraw their missiles and the
situation calms down. China tests its first atomic bomb. The United States and Soviet Union takes a
dim view of the arrival of new competitors. Via the UN, they propose a Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. This differentiates the 5 so-called nuclear
powers from the rest of the world. Existing nuclear powers cannot share knowledge
or supply weapons, while remaining countries cannot attempt to obtain the atomic bomb. In addition, nuclear powers are supposed to
disarm as much as possible. This treaty would gradually be signed by all
countries of the world with the exception of India, Pakistan and Israel, which denies having atomic weapons despite heavy suspicion of the contrary. Latin America goes further by creating the
first populated area free of nuclear weapons. Finally, the United States and Soviet Union
agree to limit the production of strategic weapons. 1973 sees the world’s first oil crisis. In a short time, the price of a barrel of
oil explodes, undermining global powers whose economy largely depends on the black gold. The world looks for alternatives to ensure
their energy supply. France and Japan mainly rely on nuclear energy. In the following years, many power plants
would be built around the world. In India, a so-called “peaceful” nuclear
test takes place, worrying its Pakistani rival which in turn embarks on nuclear research. In 1979, a major nuclear accident takes place
in the United States. One of the reactors at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant surges and the primary circuit leaks. As the fuel is no longer submerged, it overheats
and then melts in its vessel. Fortunately, the containment resists and prevents
radioactive leaks. A few years later at the Chernobyl nuclear
power plant, after a series of human errors, technicians lose control of the reactor. When the temperature of its core becomes too
high, an explosion blows up the concrete roof, part of which falls and fractures the vessel. A highly radioactive cloud is released into
the air. It spreads and contaminates a large part of
the European continent. Around the power plant, a 2,600 sq km exclusion zone is created and more than 200,000 people are displaced. Around the world, the accidents generate or
strengthen popular opposition to nuclear power, which puts a heavy brake on the development
of the industry. After the fall of the USSR and the end of
the Cold War, the US and Russia continue to reduce their nuclear arsenals. In addition, after more than 2,000 official
nuclear tests in the world, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is introduced. It does not enter into force because out of
the 44 countries with nuclear reactors at the time, three do not sign it and five others
sign but do not ratify it. Two years later, India and Pakistan conduct
a series of nuclear tests. Abdul Qadeer Khan, considered the father of
the Pakistani atomic bomb, acknowledges having developed a clandestine network originatingin Dubai, which has been providing Libya, Iran and North Korea with the plans and materials
necessary to create an atomic bomb. North Korea, after withdrawing from the Treaty
on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, now declares that it has carried out its first
nuclear test. At the same time, Iran announces that it has
successfully enriched uranium, which worries the international community. Israel for its part maintains ambiguity over
its nuclear program. Many believe the country has dozens of atomic
weapons, but the latter neither confirms nor denies reports to deter any potential enemy. One of the advantages of nuclear power is
that it emits little CO2. However, it generates radioactive waste with
a lifespan of up to several hundred thousand years. While most of the waste has a lifespan of
a few decades, current technologies do not offer a definitive solution for high-level, long-lived waste. Most countries rely on deep geological repositories
to store nuclear waste more than 300 meters under the Earth’s surface. On 11 March, 2011, Japan suffers a triple
disaster. After an 9.1-magnitude earthquake — the most
violent ever recorded in the country — its coasts are hit by a powerful tsunami with a height of over 10 meters, affecting the Fukushima nuclear plant. Crashes prevent the cooling of the core of
its reactors. Within days, 4 reactors explode, releasing
a highly radioactive cloud that is blown towards the Pacific Ocean, reaching the North American continent and then spreading throughout the northern hemisphere. All 39 Japanese nuclear reactors are then shut
down. In the aftermath, Germany announces a phasing
out of nuclear power. Elsewhere, most nuclear countries review the
safety of their plants. While 9 countries still have 16,000 nuclear
bombs, at the UN, a Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, which aims at the complete elimination of nuclear weapons, is voted by 122 countries. Only the Netherlands votes against, while
Singapore abstains. But the vote is marked above all by the absence
of many countries, including the nuclear powers and member countries of NATO. If the treaty is ratified by 50 countries,
it will come into force. Today, 34 countries have already ratified
it. In terms of nuclear power, 417 operating reactors
produce just over 10% of the world’s electricity. 46 reactors are under construction, including
10 in China whose energy needs are increasing. Elsewhere in the world, the nuclear fleet
is ageing. Two thirds of global reactors are older than 30 years, out of their originally planned lifespan of 40 years. Their future dismantling promises to be costly. New generations of nuclear power plants struggle
to meet the world’s rising energy needs, while its construction suffers significant
delays and additional costs. Meanwhile, 35 countries are collaborating around the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which is being carried out
in France. The aim is to study the possibility of building
nuclear fusion power plants over the long term. Its budget has already jumped from 5 to 19
billion euros, but if the project is successful it could offer a new type of power plant that
would produce a large amount of electricity with little raw material and very little radioactive
waste.

100 thoughts on “History of nuclear power

  1. Muad Khalif Post author

    Everyone his channel got hacked
    This has happened to YouTubers before. They try to scam you so don't donate to any live streams.

    Reply
  2. Bob Bobby Post author

    This account has been hacked. Don’t trust anything on the live-streams. DO NOT DONATE TO THE STREAMS.

    And by the way, he can’t really get his account back. Google and YouTube wont help. This is one of many hacks going on in the website.

    Reply
  3. TaxelGames Post author

    everyone report the livestream for spam or missleading and Scams/fraud!
    edit: he made a tweet saying hes trying to get his account back

    Reply
  4. Kellerbaron Post author

    Dude what happened to this channel of quality, what I just saw scared me, bitcoin stream.

    Reply
  5. Stickmanlolz Post author

    Oh god he must have gotten duped by those hackers too

    Reply
  6. dankcatlord Post author

    The account got hacked by Binance. Many other channels have got hacked too. https://www.patreon.com/geohistory

    Reply
  7. Lil Woodchip Post author

    What the hell has happened? There is bitcoin stream on the channel…

    Reply
  8. Ozone 345 Post author

    Im reuploading these videos on this channel so if the channel gets deleted

    Reply
  9. G Ma Post author

    also why did this channel get hacked?

    sad because me like history ;-;

    Reply
  10. Walrus Kitten Post author

    Eveyone report the stream for scams but make sure to leave a reminder that youtube should not ban his channel instead return it

    Reply
  11. grapeape 3 Post author

    Geo history, did you sell out? Now you're binance exchange?

    Reply
  12. Andrew Noble Post author

    This channel has been hacked. The author of Russian Geo-history has made a video in which he explains what happened(link below, if someone's interested). He also said that the author of this channel is aware of the fact that his account got hacked, and the author of this channel already made a report to Google Support.

    Video link : https://youtu.be/8SXS_jZgL7Q

    Reply
  13. Iskaka Post author

    Right, some cunts hacked such a good youtube channel. Anyone know if hes made a new one or of any other way to acces new content hes going to make? If he is that is.

    Reply
  14. Vincent Tjianattan Post author

    https://mobile.twitter.com/binance/status/962953093208932352

    Reply
  15. Amitabha Kusari Post author

    For some reason every channel affected by this new 'binance' menace is related to history, geography and geopolitics. This could be more than a simple scam. Someone doesn't want educational content on YT.

    Reply
  16. Suleiman Zhukov Post author

    Hello!
    What's going on with the channel?
    Why do we see BitCoin on this channel?
    Where are the History Videos, like old days?

    Reply
  17. Geo Historia Post author

    Dear subscribers, as you noticed, unfortunatelly Geo History and the translated channels have been hacked. Youtube is working on it right now, hopefully it will be solved very soon. Sorry for that and thank you for your support. (Geo History from the last channel that hasn't been hacked)

    Reply
  18. please enter a name Post author

    That guy on the thumbnail for the live stream looks like a criminal, and disgusting.

    Reply
  19. Roman Popyk Post author

    If someone knows Russian, here's the video where the Russian translator of GeoHistory explains everything

    https://youtu.be/8SXS_jZgL7Q

    Reply
  20. Rahul Venkit Post author

    Hi Geo History viewers. I'm the narrator of the English version of Geo History. I don't usually comment here, but times are extraordinary. As many of you have correctly pointed out, this channel and its French and Russian counterparts have been hacked. We're anguished and angry, but YouTube is aware and hopefully working on restoring our account. We're hoping things will be sorted out and that our videos will remain untouched. We've worked very hard to build a vibrant community of viewers over the past two years. What is particularly hard to understand is how someone thinks it's a good idea to hijack some else's channel and broadcast spam. How is that going to help anyone's cause?

    Obviously don't click on any links from the hacker's mindless, low-quality live streams. It goes against everything we stand for. We aim to spread knowledge, not spam.

    Supported by our community, we promise to be back in full force as soon as possible to continue our mission to educate. Thanks for bearing with us.

    Reply
  21. David YANG Post author

    Looks like GeoHistory has had his YouTube account compromised. Sad to see it happen to what was such an informational and educational channel.

    Reply
  22. pilp tran Post author

    Why are you changing the channel? I dont trust Bitcon a lot. I would rather you continue making videos like you did in past.

    Reply
  23. Ahmes Syahda Post author

    hold on i don't remember subscribing to binance exchange

    oof

    Reply
  24. Bird In Motion Post author

    GUYS TO RESTORE GEO HISTORY'S YOUTUBE CHANNEL ATTACK THE PEOPLE WHO STOLE IT.

    THE PEOPLE WHO STOLE IT CALL THEMSELVES BLOCKSHOW. GO HARASS THEN UNTIL THEY RESTORE OUR LOVE OF HISTORY

    Reply
  25. Hauo hakuthaksi Post author

    did this channel get hacked? Its changed to binance exchange and its playing stream on loop with suspicious looking links. Either the owner sold the channel, or it has been hacked.

    Reply
  26. pinkietoe Post author

    Looks like Geohistory has been hacked and turned into a Bitcoin pyramid scheme…

    Reply
  27. Tanner Heaps Post author

    What the hell happened to this channel? why is it a crypto channel now?

    Reply
  28. Lord Post author

    Why did this channel change its name and is now livestreaming some crypto currency thing? I definitely don't care about that at all so I guess bye.

    Reply
  29. Russell Harder Post author

    Was this channel bought out by “binance exchange”?

    Reply
  30. ⰔⰑⰏⰅ ⰜⰓⰑⰕⰋⰀⰐ ⰃⰖⰫ Post author

    what is binance exchange?

    Reply
  31. Jaf Post author

    Sorry bro gonna have to unsub. Hopefully someone will reply to this comment and let us know if he gets his channel back or starts a new one

    Reply
  32. Nilotpal Das Post author

    Why did you change your name all of a sudden? Geo History seemed perfect. I hope you're not trolling us

    Reply
  33. The crusading Knight Post author

    Second history channel that got hacked this year that I know of.

    Reply
  34. Roman Popyk Post author

    Everyone try to reach @TeamYouTube on Twitter to bring their attention to it

    Reply
  35. Beastador Post author

    He sold his channel. He would have had it back by now if he wanted to.

    Reply
  36. SGT Bigboi Post author

    Really hope you get your channel back. Has this happened to any other channel?

    Reply
  37. Charlie Heyes Post author

    Tf has happened to your channel. Bitcoin? Why? Hackers?

    Reply
  38. NoobAlike Post author

    Guys don't unsub, the channel's been hacked. I'm sure he'll get the account back

    Reply
  39. EnellGmz Post author

    I am so sorry buddy that your channel has been hacked. What can we do to help?

    Reply
  40. Logan Garcia Post author

    What happened to your channel?! I already saw this happen twice!

    Reply
  41. Metatron Post author

    I Know you have been highjacked, another channel I know had the same thing happen to then and we fixed it. Please contact me through my facebook page Metatron or through my email [email protected] and we'll find a way for you to get your channel back.

    Reply
  42. Alex Mathiesen Post author

    Okay, how long can two guys talk. No I am not watching the whole video to find out.

    Reply
  43. Nilotpal Das Post author

    Number of Subscribers are decreasing sad to see that 🙁 it was 272k yesterday. Hope u can recover the channel soon enough

    Reply
  44. Resonance Post author

    Do not believe that bitcoin thing on live because those guys hacked this channel!
    Please copy this message and write another one

    Reply
  45. •Ty Mills• Post author

    its so sad this channel got hacked.
    Looks like it was his fulltime income too.
    Shame on Behance.

    Reply
  46. ⰔⰑⰏⰅ ⰜⰓⰑⰕⰋⰀⰐ ⰃⰖⰫ Post author

    any news i see that they have stopped streaming

    Reply
  47. RadicalBuddhist Post author

    And so begins the next chapter in history, the invasion of binance exchange

    Reply
  48. Bhanupratap Tandan Post author

    India did it because of china not for Pakistan…..give correct facts atleast.

    Reply

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